Model traits are used to implement common functionality.


Hashed attributes are hashed immediately when the attribute is first set on the model. To hash attributes in your model, apply the October\Rain\Database\Traits\Hashable trait and declare a $hashable property with an array containing the attributes to hash.

class User extends Model
    use \October\Rain\Database\Traits\Hashable;

     * @var array List of attributes to hash.
    protected $hashable = ['password'];


Purged attributes will not be saved to the database when a model is created or updated. To purge attributes in your model, apply the October\Rain\Database\Traits\Purgeable trait and declare a $purgeable property with an array containing the attributes to purge.

class User extends Model
    use \October\Rain\Database\Traits\Purgeable;

     * @var array List of attributes to purge.
    protected $purgeable = ['password_confirmation'];

The defined attributes will be purged when the model is saved, before the model events are triggered, including validation. Use the getOriginalPurgeValue to find a value that was purged.

return $user->getOriginalPurgeValue('password_confirmation');


Similar to the hashable trait, encrypted attributes are encrypted when set but also decrypted when an attribute is retrieved. To encrypt attributes in your model, apply the October\Rain\Database\Traits\Encryptable trait and declare a $encryptable property with an array containing the attributes to encrypt.

class User extends Model
    use \October\Rain\Database\Traits\Encryptable;

     * @var array List of attributes to encrypt.
    protected $encryptable = ['api_key', 'api_secret'];

Note: Encrypted attributes will be serialized and unserialized as a part of the encryption / decryption process. Do not make an attribute that is encryptable also jsonable at the same time as the jsonable process will attempt to decode a value that has already been unserialized by the encryptor.


Slugs are meaningful codes that are commonly used in page URLs. To automatically generate a unique slug for your model, apply the October\Rain\Database\Traits\Sluggable trait and declare a $slugs property.

class User extends Model
    use \October\Rain\Database\Traits\Sluggable;

     * @var array Generate slugs for these attributes.
    protected $slugs = ['slug' => 'name'];

The $slugs property should be an array where the key is the destination column for the slug and the value is the source string used to generate the slug. In the above example, if the name column was set to Cheyenne, as a result the slug column would be set to cheyenne, cheyenne-1, or cheyenne-2, etc before the model is created.

To generate a slug from multiple sources, pass another array as the source value:

protected $slugs = [
    'slug' => ['first_name', 'last_name']

Slugs are only generated when a model first created. To override or disable this functionality, simply set the slug attribute manually:

$user = new User;
$user->name = 'Remy';
$user->slug = 'custom-slug';
$user->save(); // Slug will not be generated

Use the slugAttributes method to regenerate slugs when updating a model:

$user = User::find(1);
$user->slug = null;


October models can record the history of changes in values by storing revisions. To store revisions for your model, apply the October\Rain\Database\Traits\Revisionable trait and declare a $revisionable property with an array containing the attributes to monitor for changes. You also need to define a $morphMany model relation called revision_history that refers to the System\Models\Revision class with the name revisionable, this is where the revision history data is stored.

class User extends Model
    use \October\Rain\Database\Traits\Revisionable;

     * @var array Monitor these attributes for changes.
    protected $revisionable = ['name', 'email'];

     * @var array Relations
    public $morphMany = [
        'revision_history' => ['System\Models\Revision', 'name' => 'revisionable']

By default 500 records will be kept, however this can be modified by declaring a $revisionableLimit property on the model with a new limit value.

 * @var int Maximum number of revision records to keep.
public $revisionableLimit = 8;

The revision history can be accessed like any other relation:

$history = User::find(1)->revision_history;

foreach ($history as $record) {
    echo $record->field . ' updated ';
    echo 'from ' . $record->old_value;
    echo 'to ' . $record->new_value;

The revision record optionally supports a user relationship using the user_id attribute. You may include a getRevisionableUser method in your model to keep track of the user that made the modification.

public function getRevisionableUser()
    return BackendAuth::getUser()->id;


Sorted models will store a number value in sort_order which maintains the sort order of each individual model in a collection. To store a sort order for your models, apply the October\Rain\Database\Traits\Sortable trait and ensure that your schema has a column defined for it to use (example: $table->integer('sort_order')->default(0);).

class User extends Model
    use \October\Rain\Database\Traits\Sortable;

You may modify the key name used to identify the sort order by defining the SORT_ORDER constant:

const SORT_ORDER = 'my_sort_order_column';

Use the setSortableOrder method to set the orders on a single record or multiple records.

// Sets the order of the user to 1...
$user->setSortableOrder($user->id, 1);

// Sets the order of records 1, 2, 3 to 3, 2, 1 respectively...
$user->setSortableOrder([1, 2, 3], [3, 2, 1]);

Note: If adding this trait to a model where data (rows) already existed previously, the data set may need to be initialized before this trait will work correctly. To do so, either manually update each row's sort_order column or run a query against the data to copy the record's id column to the sort_order column (ex. UPDATE myvendor_myplugin_mymodelrecords SET sort_order = id).

Simple Tree

A simple tree model will use the parent_id column maintain a parent and child relationship between models. To use the simple tree, apply the October\Rain\Database\Traits\SimpleTree trait.

class Category extends Model
    use \October\Rain\Database\Traits\SimpleTree;

This trait will automatically inject two model relations called parent and children, it is the equivalent of the following definitions:

public $belongsTo = [
    'parent'    => ['User', 'key' => 'parent_id'],

public $hasMany = [
    'children'    => ['User', 'key' => 'parent_id'],

You may modify the key name used to identify the parent by defining the PARENT_ID constant:

const PARENT_ID = 'my_parent_column';

Collections of models that use this trait will return the type of October\Rain\Database\TreeCollection which adds the toNested method. To build an eager loaded tree structure, return the records with the relations eager loaded.



In order to render all levels of items and their children, you can use recursive processing

{% macro renderChildren(item) %}
    {% import _self as SELF %}
    {% if item.children is not empty %}
            {% for child in item.children %}
                <li>{{ }}{{ SELF.renderChildren(child) | raw }}</li>
            {% endfor %}
    {% endif %}
{% endmacro %}

{% import _self as SELF %}
{{ SELF.renderChildren(category) | raw }}

Nested Tree

The nested set model is an advanced technique for maintaining hierachies among models using parent_id, nest_left, nest_right, and nest_depth columns. To use a nested set model, apply the October\Rain\Database\Traits\NestedTree trait. All of the features of the SimpleTree trait are inherently available in this model.

class Category extends Model
    use \October\Rain\Database\Traits\NestedTree;

Creating a root node

By default, all nodes are created as roots:

$root = Category::create(['name' => 'Root category']);

Alternatively, you may find yourself in the need of converting an existing node into a root node:


You may also nullify it's parent_id column which works the same as `makeRoot'.

$node->parent_id = null;

Inserting nodes

You can insert new nodes directly by the relation:

$child1 = $root->children()->create(['name' => 'Child 1']);

Or use the makeChildOf method for existing nodes:

$child2 = Category::create(['name' => 'Child 2']);

Deleting nodes

When a node is deleted with the delete method, all descendants of the node will also be deleted. Note that the delete model events will not be fired for the child models.


Getting the nesting level of a node

The getLevel method will return current nesting level, or depth, of a node.

// 0 when root

Moving nodes around

There are several methods for moving nodes around:

moveLeft(): Find the left sibling and move to the left of it. moveRight(): Find the right sibling and move to the right of it. moveBefore($otherNode): Move to the node to the left of ... moveAfter($otherNode): Move to the node to the right of ... makeChildOf($otherNode): Make the node a child of ... makeRoot(): Make current node a root node.


October models uses the built-in Validator class. The validation rules are defined in the model class as a property named $rules and the class must use the trait October\Rain\Database\Traits\Validation:

class User extends Model
    use \October\Rain\Database\Traits\Validation;

    public $rules = [
        'name'                  => 'required|between:4,16',
        'email'                 => 'required|email',
        'password'              => 'required|alpha_num|between:4,8|confirmed',
        'password_confirmation' => 'required|alpha_num|between:4,8'

Note: You're free to use the array syntax for validation rules as well.

Models validate themselves automatically when the save method is called.

$user = new User;
$user->name = 'Actual Person';
$user->email = '[email protected]';
$user->password = 'passw0rd';

// Returns false if model is invalid
$success = $user->save();

Note: You can also validate a model at any time using the validate method.

Retrieving validation errors

When a model fails to validate, a Illuminate\Support\MessageBag object is attached to the model. The object which contains validation failure messages. Retrieve the validation errors message collection instance with errors method or $validationErrors property. Retrieve all validation errors with errors()->all(). Retrieve errors for a specific attribute using validationErrors->get('attribute').

Note: The Model leverages the MessagesBag object which has a simple and elegant method of formatting errors.

Overriding validation

The forceSave method validates the model and saves regardless of whether or not there are validation errors.

$user = new User;

// Creates a user without validation

Custom error messages

Just like the Validator class, you can set custom error messages using the same syntax.

class User extends Model
    public $customMessages = [
       'required' => 'The :attribute field is required.',

Custom attribute names

You may also set custom attribute names with the $attributeNames array.

class User extends Model
    public $attributeNames = [
       'email' => 'Email Address',

Dynamic validation rules

You can apply rules dynamically by overriding the beforeValidate model event method. Here we check if the is_remote attribute is false and then dynamically set the latitude and longitude attributes to be required fields.

public function beforeValidate()
    if (!$this->is_remote) {
        $this->rules['latitude'] = 'required';
        $this->rules['longitude'] = 'required';

Custom validation rules

You can also create custom validation rules the same way you would for the Validator service.

Soft deleting

When soft deleting a model, it is not actually removed from your database. Instead, a deleted_at timestamp is set on the record. To enable soft deletes for a model, apply the October\Rain\Database\Traits\SoftDelete trait to the model and add the deleted_at column to your $dates property:

class User extends Model
    use \October\Rain\Database\Traits\SoftDelete;

    protected $dates = ['deleted_at'];

To add a deleted_at column to your table, you may use the softDeletes method from a migration:

Schema::table('posts', function ($table) {

Now, when you call the delete method on the model, the deleted_at column will be set to the current timestamp. When querying a model that uses soft deletes, the "deleted" models will not be included in query results.

To determine if a given model instance has been soft deleted, use the trashed method:

if ($user->trashed()) {

Querying soft deleted models

Including soft deleted models

As noted above, soft deleted models will automatically be excluded from query results. However, you may force soft deleted models to appear in a result set using the withTrashed method on the query:

$users = User::withTrashed()->where('account_id', 1)->get();

The withTrashed method may also be used on a relationship query:


Retrieving only soft deleted models

The onlyTrashed method will retrieve only soft deleted models:

$users = User::onlyTrashed()->where('account_id', 1)->get();

Restoring soft deleted models

Sometimes you may wish to "un-delete" a soft deleted model. To restore a soft deleted model into an active state, use the restore method on a model instance:


You may also use the restore method in a query to quickly restore multiple models:

// Restore a single model instance...
User::withTrashed()->where('account_id', 1)->restore();

// Restore all related models...

Permanently deleting models

Sometimes you may need to truly remove a model from your database. To permanently remove a soft deleted model from the database, use the forceDelete method:

// Force deleting a single model instance...

// Force deleting all related models...

Soft deleting relations

When two related models have soft deletes enabled, you can cascade the delete event by defining the softDelete option in the relation definition. In this example, if the user model is soft deleted, the comments belonging to that user will also be soft deleted.

class User extends Model
    use \October\Rain\Database\Traits\SoftDelete;

    public $hasMany = [
        'comments' => ['Acme\Blog\Models\Comment', 'softDelete' => true]

Note: If the related model does not use the soft delete trait, it will be treated the same as the delete option and deleted permanently.

Under these same conditions, when the primary model is restored, all the related models that use the softDelete option will also be restored.

// Restore the user and comments


Nullable attributes are set to NULL when left empty. To nullify attributes in your model, apply the October\Rain\Database\Traits\Nullable trait and declare a $nullable property with an array containing the attributes to nullify.

class Product extends Model
    use \October\Rain\Database\Traits\Nullable;

     * @var array Nullable attributes.
    protected $nullable = ['sku'];

Next: Application

Previous: Serialization